Hayastan - Armenia
Worldwide GNP rank:
around 3.8 million
129. (old, as of 1993)
Once, present-day Armenia was part of the vast Macedonian Empire of Alexander the Great.
After the decline of the Empire, Armenia itself grew stronger and stronger after the 1st century B.C.
At that time, Armenia was stretching from the Euphrat in present-day Iraq to the Caspian Sea.
Little later, the Armenia was conquered by the Roman empire. In the year 301 AD, Armenia was the first country
in the world to declare Christianity to be the state religion. It didn't help a lot - later on, Armenia was
invaded by Persia, the Ottoman empire, Crusaders, Mamelukes, Mongols and so on. In 1828, Armenia was finally wrested
by the Russian Empire from Persia.
Occasionally one can hear or read the term "Great Armenia" - this includes large parts of the former Ottoman Empire respectively present-day →Turkey. During the Turkish-Russian war, many Armenians supported the Russians and therefore had to flee from the Ottoman Empire. However, an estimated 1.0? 1.5? 2.5? million Armenians (numbers vary - there is no reliable source) remained in the Empire. Already at the end of the 19th century, first clashes between Armenians and Turks broke out and left many people dead. Things got much worse in 1915. The Young Turks decided to expel the Armenian minority to avoid more trouble with Russia. Hundred thousands were murdered or sent to the desert, where even more died of hunger, thirst or exhaustion. It is not quite sure how many Armenians were killed - estimations are between 0.5 and 1.5 million. Many Armenians fled to other countries, and so there's a huge Armenian Diaspora scattered all over the world. There's an Armenian quarter (actually it's much older than the Turkish-Armenian problem) in the old town of →Jerusalem and hundred thousands of Armenians living in America or Canada. There's a heated debate on whether it should be called a Genocide or not - however, due to the fact that Turkey is continuously denying that there had been atrocities, the relation between Turkey and Armenia is still very bad. To put it straight, there's no relation between Turkey and Armenia at all.
A more recent problem is the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh (Mountainous Karabakh) with neighbouring Azerbaijan. This small area already caused trouble before Armenia and Azerbaijan became parts of the Soviet Union. During the 1980ies, many inhabitants of Karabakh demanded unification with Armenia. After the breakdown of the Soviet Union, one of many ethnic conflicts in and around the Caucasus area developed into a full-scale war between Azerbaijan and Armenia, which ended with a truce in 1994. Armenia won the war, but most of the inhabitants of Nagorno-Karabakh - Azeris as well as Armenians - had already fled the region before the end of the war. Armenia not just seized Nagorno-Karabakh, but also a narrow strip of land between Karabakh and Armenia. The problem remains unsolved. Nagorno-Karabakh is not part of Armenia but an independent country, only recognized by - yes, Armenia. Visitors even require a separate visa. The price for the victory was high. Azerbaijan and their supporters cut off Armenia's energy, gas and goods supply. Especially in 1991 and 1992, Armenians suffered bitterly cold winters without electricity and heating. Many of Armenias forests, especially around the capital, vanished at that time. Within the Soviet Union, Armenia was quite a wealthy country. But due to the war, the economy collapsed. The economy partially recovered, but poverty is widespread problem - especially among the elderly. The average monthly pension is € 8 only, which is, even in Armenia, not enough to get by. The ongoing embargo imposed by some countries doesn't make things easier.
I talked to Armenians (in Armenia) about the conflict for hours and hours. The people I talked to considered the war against Azerbaijan a war of liberation and therefore legitimate. As mentioned above, the Nagorno-Karabakh issue is yet to be solved. The relation to Turkey and Azerbaijan hit rock-bottom, with all borders remaining closed and no glimmer of hope - at least not at the moment.
The domestic political situation doesn't look very stable either. In November 1999, some gunmen entered the parliament, killed the prime minister, his speaker and some members of parliament. The background of this assassination is unclear.
Armenian belongs to the Indo-European language family as many other European languages do.
As for the vocabulary, this fact isn't much help. Nothing sounds familiar, which is partially due to the
fact that many words had been imported from Persian. Armenians developed their own writing system
in the 5th century, using 38 characters. There are small letters and capital letters, in some cases both
look completely different. The characters are not very complicated, so learning them is just a question of
time (see the word for Armenia "Hayastan" written in Armenian atop this page). The Armenian word for
"yes" is worth a prize: ay-yo.
As in many but not all ex-Soviet Union countries, Russian is lingua franca. Older people are very fluent in Russian. Many young people, at least in the capital, speak some English. But for some reason it is sometimes hard to understand.
|Nature & Climate
Armenia mainly consists of mountains, plateaus, mountains, valleys, mountains... Only 10% of the country
is lower than 1,000 m above sea level. The lowest area and biggest valley can be found around
Yerevan along the Turkish border. Armenia's highest point is 4,090 m high Mt. Aragats north-west of the capital.
From Yerevan it's possible to see majestic Mt. Ararat on the other side of the border. Armenia's natural highlight
is one of the biggest mountain lakes in the world - lake Sevan. At around 1900 m above sea level, beautiful lake Sevan's
water surface exceeds 1,000 km².
A geologically very active fault in the north-west of Armenia is the source of destructive earthquakes.
In 1988, a massive earthquake virtually flattened the cities of Gyumri (at that time known as Leninakan) and Spitak.
Both cities have been rebuilt and look different to other Armenian cities.
Precipitation in Armenia is very low compared to Georgia, with parts of the country being affected by occasional drought. Even in Yerevan water is rationed during the summer, which is why many citizens installed additional self-made water tanks in their appartments. The summer in and around Yerevan is quite hot and very dry; in winter temperatures can drop far below zero. Needless to say that it's colder in the mountains, but there's nothing better than a summer day at lake Sevan.
Almost all nationalities need a visa for Armenia. There's no Armenian consulate or embassy
in Turkey and Azerbaijan, so it's better to organize the visa in Georgia or elsewhere. I've heard from
some other travelers that it's possible to obtain a visa upon entry - and not just at the airport.
However, they did not let us enter the bus to Yerevan in Tiblisi before we showed our Armenian visa -
this is probably because the driver didn't want to wait longer than necessary at the border.
It's even possible to obtain a visa via the internet
but it only seems to be accepted at the airport. Visa regulations became quite easy - neither a LOI (letter of invitation) nor
vouchers are necessary.
The best and easiest to get visa is good for three weeks, the fee is around € 60.
Armenia shares borders with Azerbaijan (incl. Naxçıvan), Iran, Turkey and Georgia. As already mentioned above,
there's no border crossing to Turkey and Azerbaijan. It's possible to enter Nagorno-Karabakh, without even having
the Armenian visa stamped. However, another visa for Nagorno Karabakh is required - one can easily get it at the consulate
There aren't many tourists in Armenia (except for this large coach-party of Japanese tourists in Sevan...). That's why it's rather expensive and complicated to go there by plane. Most people enter from Georgia, but this takes a good deal of time. Transport in Armenia is extremely slow - trains need 3 hrs for 70 km, and buses or shared taxis aren't much faster. Armenians are very hospitable and kind to strangers - just look as if you were lost, and soon someone comes trying to help you. As in Georgia, we've never had the feeling that someone was trying to rip us off. Nevertheless it is extremely helpful to know some Armenian or Russian.
Armenia's currency is called Dram. In 2002, €1 was worth around 500 Dram. The government successfully fought against inflation, so the Dram is rather stable. US-Dollar is the most helpful foreign currency, although the Euro should be accepted more and more. There are a few ATM's in Yerevan and countless exchange booths everywhere. The exchange margin is quite tight, so it's not a big loss to change back left money - of course only inside Armenia. The country is still very cheap. Transportation, food and drinks are extremely cheap. There's nothing like a hostel or cheap hotel in Armenia, so the best thing (not just because of the price!) to do is opting for private accommodation. Since Armenia is a rather small country, it's possible to stay in Yerevan and explore the surroundings in day-trips.
The mysteriously wide, open landscape in the north-west, the mountains in the south-east, lake Sevan in the middle, all the cultural and historical monuments around Yerevan, the vibrant capital itself with its beautiful park cafés and museums - there's definitely no lack of interesting places in the country. Unfortunately I'd only had three days in Yerevan, which only allowed a cursory glance at life in Armenia. But I had the chance to talk to many Armenians and to learn a lot. Even two weeks would be too short for this small country. I don't know why, but I never felt unsafe in Armenia - not in the countryside, not at night, not in dreary housing areas. Which was a bit different to Georgia.