モンテネグロについて


自然 | 歴史 | 旅行案内 | リンク集

一般的な情報

国名

クロアチアの国旗公式の国名はRepublika Crna Gora (ローマ字)/ Република Црна Гора(キリル字)で、日本語で言うとモンテネグロ共和国。 通称はCrna Gora / Црна Гора 。両方の言葉はスラブ語で、「Crna」は「黒」、そして「Gora」は「山」と意味する。訳すと、国名は「黒い山」と意味するが、元々の意味は「山が豊富」だ。モンテネグロを旅した経験のある方は納得するしかない。現在の国名は初めて13世紀に記されたと言われている。

昔のヴェネツィア人はスラブ語の名前をそのまま訳して、イタリア語に近いヴェネツィア語でMontenegro(monte = 山、参照:mountain、negro = 黒、参照:negroid等)にした。しかし、沢山の言語では「黒い山」がそのまま訳され使われている。このため、モンテネグロは隣国のアルバニア語で「Mali i Zi (黒い山)」、中国語で「黑山」などになる。

面積

13,812㎢。比較すると、四国の面積の¾と同じ。

人口

モンテネグロの人口は約62万人しかいない。人口密度はヨーロッパにして低く、北海道より少ない。その上、ほとんどのモンテネグロ人は海岸沿いまたは首都圏に住んでいる。モンテネグロでは少子化と海外への移住が進んでしまい、人口が減りつつある。

民族

隣国と同じく、様々な民族がいる。モンテネグロ人は45%、セルビア人29%、ボスニア人29%、アルバニア人は5%程度。その他には、クロアチア人やロマ人などもいる。

宗教

モンテネグロの地図;クリックしてみてください

モンテネグロの地図;クリックしてみてください


モンテネグロの宗教は民族の割合に応じて、正教会が一番多い(モンテネグロ人とセルビア人)。多くのアルバニア人とボスニア人はイスラム教の教徒である。カトリック教はわりと少ない。

時差

日本より8時間遅れ。サマータイムがあるので、 4月の下旬から10月の下旬まで (大体その月の最後の土日の間の夜から) 時差は日本より7時間遅れるようになる。

言語

民族が多いので言語も多い。標準語はモンテネグロ語であるが、地方によってセルビア語やアルバニア語、ボスニア語、クロアチア語なども公式に使われている。しかし、2003年度の国勢調査によると、22%だけがモンテネグロ語を母国語と呼んで、その代わりに62%はセルビア語を母国語と示した。

最近、モンテネグロ語についての争論が進んでいる。言語科学者はモンテネグロ語とセルビア語の差を調べ、モンテネグロ語は言語の一つであるかただのセルビア語の方言であるかと議論している。その議論の一つの焦点はѢ / ě ヤーチというスラヴ祖語の母音である。その文字は実際モンテネグロ語で使われてない。例えば「白」と意味する言葉をとると:セルビア語では「白」は「ベリ」になるが、モンテネグロ語とクロアチア語、ボスニア語などのスラヴ語では同じ言葉は「ビエリ」と発音される。

モンテネグロ語についての争論には政治的な背景がある。モンテネグロの愛国主義者は、国語はセルビア語ではなく、自分の言語であると強調したいという動機もあるだろう。全般的にいうと、モンテネグロ語で話す人は問題なくセルビア人やクロアチア人、ボスニア人などと会話できる。ロシア語もある程度まで通じるが、ロシア語だと場合によって差が大きすぎて全てをわかることが難しい。モンテネグロの南部にはアルバニア人が多いのでアルバニア語のほうが使われている。アルバニア語はスラヴ語ではなく全く違う言語なので、その地方だけだとスラヴ語ができても助からない。

セルビアと同じく、モンテネグロには二つのアルファベットが使われる。一つのアルファベットはローマ字だが、様々な特殊文字が使われる。その文字は Č, Ć, Dž, Đ, Lj, Nj, Š, Ś, Ž と Źである。それに加えて、キリル字も使用され、ロシア語のアルファベットと比べるとЂ, З́, Ј, Љ, Њ, С́, Ћ と Џはモンテネグロ語のアルファベットに追加される。セルビア語の短い導入はこちら

自然

モンテネグロは小さい国かもしれないが、大自然の多様性が素晴らしくて、色々な景色が楽しめる。「山が沢山」という国名が予想をつく通り、ほとんど国全体が山に覆われ、海岸添いさえ平野がほとんどない。最南部と首都のポドゴリツァの辺だけが平野になる。

山々が海岸で始まり、石灰岩が多いのでカルストという石灰岩の特別な浸食に基づく地形がよくみえる。海岸沿いの山脈は2,000メートルの高さまでそびえる。海岸から北と東へ進むと、Durmitor ドゥルミトル山とそれより険しいProkletije プロクレティイェ山脈(別名:アルバニアのアルプス)がある。モンテネグロの最高峰はZla Kolata ズラ・コラタ山という2,536メートルの、アルバニアとの国境にあるプロクレティイェ山脈の一つの山である。

 

山に囲まれているシュコダル湖

山に囲まれているシュコダル湖

 

海岸に近いOrjen オリエン山という山脈は特に注目すべきだ。この辺りはディナル・アルプス山脈の外側(海側)の一番標高が高い地方だ。Boka Kotorska コトル湾 (参照:コトル) という南欧の一番大きいフィヨルドはその山脈の一部である。コトル湾添いの崖の高さは所々で1,300メートルの高さまでそびえている。

Die Tara-Schlucht nahe der bosnischen Grenze ist an der tiefsten Stelle rund 1’300 Meter tief. Das gesamte Tal ist 78 km lang, und damit ist die Tara-Schlucht der längste und tiefste Canyon Europas. Am Fluss Tara beginnt auch der Nationalpark Biogradska gora (Biograder Berge) – einer von vier Nationalparks im gesamten Land. Die anderen drei befinden sich im Durmitor-Massiv, dem Skutarisee (auch: Shkodrasee, der größte See auf dem Balkan, siehe Bar: Skutarisee sowie die Lovćen-Berge.

Das Klima in Montenegro ist dreigeteilt – an der Küste ist es ausgeprägt mediterran, mit langen und warmen Sommern und milden Wintern. Die Durchschnittstemperatur im Sommer entlang der Küste beträgt 27 Grad, wobei das Wasser ebenfalls diese Temperatur erreichen kann. Die Küste wartet zudem mit 180 Sonnentagen auf – die meisten davon entfallen auf den Sommer. Mit anderen Worten – es regnet nicht oft im Sommer. Im Landesinneren ändert sich das Klima merklich – dort ist es wesentlich kühler und niederschlagsreicher. Der Zubački kabao, ein Berggipfel in den Orjen-Bergen, gilt als feuchtester Ort Europas mit einer Niederschlagsmenge von 6’250 mm pro Jahr – das ist in etwa die 10-fache Menge dessen, was alljährlich in Berlin vom Himmel fällt. Dieser 1’894 m hohe Gipfel ist dabei 140 Tage im Jahr schneebedeckt.

Randnotiz: Die 260 km lange Küste Montenegros ist tektonisch reichlich aktiv. Zuletzt zerstörte 1979 ein verheerendes Erdbeben in der Region zahlreiche Orte entlang dr Adriaküste.

歴史

Montenegro’s geschichte is mainly dominated by the fact, that the interior of the country is very rugged, making it difficult to built settlements and the appropriate infrastructure. Additionally, large areas are characterized by karst phenomena, which means that the underground is not capable of keeping much water near the surface – as soon as the rain falls, the water is gone. This means that the geschichte of Montenegro is basically the geschichte of the Montenegrin coast only.

In early times, Montenegro very much shared the →Geschichte of Kroatien or at least of the Dalmatian coast: Conquered by the Romans, becoming part of the Illyrian province of the West Roman empire, later hit by massive migration waves and finally conquered by the huge Ottoman empire but later on also by the Slavs. After the collapse of the Serbienn empire in the 13th century, the Principality of Zeta was founded on now Montenegrin soil. Zeta was never completely conquered by the Ottoman Empire – the latter as only interested in controlling the coast and two valleys.

Since 1528, orthodox bishops ruled the country, so Montenegro became something like a clerical state, although it was rather a loose union of several tribes and groups then an organized country. And it didn’t include the coastal area – at that time important towns such as →Kotor or →Bar were controlled by the Ottomans and later by the Venetians. Later on, parts of the coast fell to the Austrian monarchy – with Kotor for example remaining in Austrian hand until the defeat in 1918.

During the 19th century, Montenegro’s rulers decided to form strong ties with Tsarist Russia. Thanks to that policy, Montenegro could declare its independence from the Ottoman empire after the Russish-Turkish war in 1878. As a result of the Congress of Berlin, Montenegro won the territory around →Bar, giving it access to the Adriatic Sea for the first time.

Within the next decades, Montenegro managed to gain more territory from the Ottoman empire, so the size of the country almost doubled until World War I. At that time, Montenegro was a monarchy with strong ties to its stronger neighbour Serbien and stuck between two super powers – Austria-Ungarn in the north and the Ottoman empire in the south. Montenegro got under pressure – and tried to free itself from the pressure by attacking the vast Ottoman empire. Montenegro therefore conquered →Shkoder and the area around it, but they had to leave the present-day Albanienn territory soon. Technically one of the winners of the World War I, Montenegro didn’t really win – in 1918 they became one of many provinces of the newly created South Slavic kingdom, aka Yugoslavia. This also marked the end of the Montenegrin monarchy – the king died in exile in 1921.

For more information on the time between 1918 and 1992, see →Geschichte of Serbien. While →Kroatien, →Slowenien and later →Bosnien and Mazedonien separated from Yugoslavia, Montenegro remained in what was left of Tito’s Yugoslavia. This meant that Montenegro was hit hard by the war in the 1990ies as well – no fightings took place on Montenegrin soils, but together with Serbien the small country became isolated and suffered the embargo (and the fact that visitors stopped visiting). The war with Kroatien didn’t help the situation: The Yugoslav army partially advanced from Montenegro – when I talked to some Kroatienns in and around Dubrovnik, I sometimes was told “Those Montenegrins are as bad as the Serbs”.

Montenegro still formed a union with Serbien, when the conflict in the →Kosovo developed into a full-scale war. Montenegro tried to stay neutral, and so it didn’t suffer heavy air strikes as much as Serbien. Around 2002, Montenegro showed interest in dividing from Serbien – but the EU and other countries were not too excited about it. Montenegro remained – with a high level of autonomy – with Serbien. Montenegro was asked to stay at least for four years with Serbien. And so, it tried again to separate on 21 May 2006. The result of the Montenegrin independence referendum was very tight (which is no surprise when looking at Montenegros ethnic groups: Serbienns are almost a majority). The turnout was higher then 85%. According to Serbienn and Montenegrin law, 55% were necessary for the winner. Eventually, 55.5% of Montenegrins voted for independence – the southwest almost entirely pro-independence, almost the entire northeast (near Serbien) contra.

And so, as of 2008, Montenegro is the newest independent country in the world. Since it was Montenegro that opted for the split, all memberships etc. fell to Serbien, which means that Montenegro had to apply for membership in the UN and hundreds of other councils first. Happily, the separation was peaceful and acknowledged by everyone. It will be interesting to see, how Montenegro will develop in future – but this future will never be entirely without Serbien – ties between Montenegro and Serbien are simply too strong.

旅行案内

前書き

So far, I’ve only been to Montenegro twice – once in 2001, then coming from Kroatien, in the aftermath of the war. At that time, no ordinary person was allowed to enter Serbien, but my wife and I managed to get into Montenegro. The second time was in 2005 – coming from Albanien and leaving for Serbien. Montenegro finally declared independence in 2006. This means I haven’t visited Montenegro after it became independent – but as far as I heard, things haven’t changed that much. However, things might change, so the following information might be out of date.

ビザ

Almost all European nationalities, as well as US citizens, Canadians, Australians, New Zealander, Japanese etc. can stay up to 30 days without visa. As with all other countries, the passport should be valid for at least another 6 months.

通貨

Already during the war in the 1990ies, Montenegro unilaterally adopted the Deutschmark as its currency, although it was still united with Serbien which had its own currency. After the introduction of the Euro, Montenegro – again unilaterally – adopted the Euro as its currency.

There are ATM’s accepting all major credit cards as well as Cirrus and Maestro cash cards – however, these ATM’s are rather hard to find outside the capital and the coastal area. Some banks and hotels can exchange money.

物価

Montenegro is a comparetively cheap destination – cheaper then Kroatien for example. It’s no big problem to find decent accommodation even in summer and along the popular coast for around € 10 per night. A good dinner in restaurants rarely costs more then € 10, but it’s also possible to get stuffed for as less as € 2. However, especially in summer and in towns popular with visitors, restaurants can be more expensive. Travelers on a small budget should be careful when ordering fish dishes – prices are often for 100 g, so it can get really expensive if it’s a large fish… Since Montenegro is not very large, bus and train rides aren’t expensive either.

宿泊

By bus, train, plane or boat. There are some direct flights from Germany, Austria and a few other countries to Montenegro – namely the airports of Podgorica and Tivat – with the latter being much closer to the coast. There are several charter flights from European cities in summer. Regular flights however aren’t very frequent. The national carrier is called Montenegro Airlines.

Regular ferries cross the Adriatic Sea from Bari and Ancona in Italy to →Bar. They run over night, take 10 hours and 16 hrs respectively. Ticket prices for the Bari-Bar ferry start at € 51 – including the € 7 port tax. There are also ferries running along the coast to Durrës near →Tirana in Albanien – prices start at € 40.

There are long-distance busses from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and many towns in Ex-Yugoslavia as well as Albanien. A daily bus runs from →Dubrovnik to →Kotor – in 2001, the price was 71.5 Kuna (around € 9) then, the trip took almost 3 hours. Microbuses run from →Shkoder (North Albanien) to →Ulcinj in Southern Montenegro and to Podgorica, the capital. Buses start in Shkoder at 3 pm and 5 pm, the ticket costs € 5. There are also buses to Bosnien and Serbien.

There are no train connections to Kroatien and Albanien (actually there is one to the latter, but that’s for freight only). Montenegro only has 249 km of railroads – most of it taken by the international train connection from →Bar to Serbien. There are two daily trains from Bar to →Belgrade and two more passing Belgrade, running via →Novi Sad to Subotica in Northern Serbien. All of those trains also stop in Podgorica (around 1 hour). The whole way to Belgrade takes around 8½ hours. Note that those trains are often completely booked out in summer. In that case, you may need to resort to a 1st class ticket, which costs € 21.20 (as of 2005).

国境通過点

There were two border crossings to →Albanien: The larger one is called Han i Hotit between →Shkodër and Podgorica North of Lake Scutari, the smaller is at Muriqan between Shkodër and →Ulcinj.
There’s only one crossing to →Kroatien – at Debeli brijeg near the coast. The closest town on the Montenegrin side is Igalo. The next large town in Kroatien is →Dubrovnik.
Border crossings to →Bosnien and Hercegovina are in Sitnica, Vilusi, Vracenovici, Scepan polje and Metaljka.
Additionally, there are numerous border crossings to →Serbien.

食事

The typical Balkan diet (grilled meat en masse, meat pies etc) plus some extras. Montenegro has it’s share of the Adriatic Sea and some large lakes, so there is fresh fish as well. Balkan food means that goats and sheeps play an important role – making mutton, lamb, goat as well as goat’s and sheep’s cheese part of the staple diet. To cut it short – Montenegrin food is mostly very fresh, healthy and plentiful.

Montenegro’s #1 beer is called Nikšic and it’s not too bad. Montenegro has plenty of mountains, a lot of limestone and many sunny days – a perfect location for growing wine. Montenegrin red and white wine are definitely worth a try – there is a lot of local, excellent wine that isn’t sold abroad.

リンク集

ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナへ セルビアへ アルバニアへ クロアチア 美しいコトルへ 海が綺麗なバルへ 旅人のトップページ モンテネグロの首都:残念ながら、行く機会がまだなかった
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